Answer by Sharon Kong:
In addition to Kelly's thorough answer, I present a few more designers of recognizable logos:
From the studio of Chermayeff & Geismar (Ivan Chermayeff and Tom Geismar):
The hidden arrow in this logo will be the tribute to Lindon Leader forever.
And Paul Rand, though Kelly already mentioned him. Paul Rand will be a legend forever:
There are just a few of the many notable designers that have influenced logo design and branding. Others, including Massimo Vignelli, Herb Lubalin, Armin Hofmann, Bob Wolf, etc. have been just as influential, though they may lack recognition from non-designers. There are also many design firms that have designed logos, but since the question asked 'who', not 'which design firms,' my answer will end here.